A complex systems approach to aging biology (2023)

Abstract

Having made substantial progress understanding molecules, cells, genes and pathways, aging biology research is now moving toward integration of these parts, attempting to understand how their joint dynamics may contribute to aging. Such a shift of perspective requires the adoption of a formal complex systems framework, a transition being facilitated by large-scale data collection and new analytical tools. Here, we provide a theoretical framework to orient researchers around key concepts for this transition, notably emergence, interaction networks and resilience. Drawing on evolutionary theory, network theory and principles of homeostasis, we propose that organismal function is accomplished by the integration of regulatory mechanisms at multiple hierarchical scales, and that the disruption of this ensemble causes the phenotypic and functional manifestations of aging. We present key examples at scales ranging from sub-organismal biology to clinical geriatrics, outlining how this approach can potentially enrich our understanding of aging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)580-591
Number of pages12
JournalNature Aging
Volume2
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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Cohen, A. A., Ferrucci, L., Fülöp, T., Gravel, D., Hao, N., Kriete, A., Levine, M. E., Lipsitz, L. A., Olde Rikkert, M. G. M., Rutenberg, A., Stroustrup, N. (2022). A complex systems approach to aging biology. Nature Aging, 2(7), 580-591. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-022-00252-6

A complex systems approach to aging biology. / Cohen, Alan A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fülöp, Tamàs et al.

In: Nature Aging, Vol. 2, No. 7, 07.2022, p. 580-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Cohen, AA, Ferrucci, L, Fülöp, T, Gravel, D, Hao, N, Kriete, A, Levine, ME, Lipsitz, LA, Olde Rikkert, MGM, Rutenberg, A, Stroustrup, N 2022, 'A complex systems approach to aging biology', Nature Aging, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 580-591. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-022-00252-6

Cohen AA, Ferrucci L, Fülöp T, Gravel D, Hao N, Kriete A et al. A complex systems approach to aging biology. Nature Aging. 2022 Jul;2(7):580-591. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-022-00252-6

(Video) What complexity tells us about aging.

Cohen, Alan A. ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Fülöp, Tamàs et al. / A complex systems approach to aging biology. In: Nature Aging. 2022 ; Vol. 2, No. 7. pp. 580-591.

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title = "A complex systems approach to aging biology",

abstract = "Having made substantial progress understanding molecules, cells, genes and pathways, aging biology research is now moving toward integration of these parts, attempting to understand how their joint dynamics may contribute to aging. Such a shift of perspective requires the adoption of a formal complex systems framework, a transition being facilitated by large-scale data collection and new analytical tools. Here, we provide a theoretical framework to orient researchers around key concepts for this transition, notably emergence, interaction networks and resilience. Drawing on evolutionary theory, network theory and principles of homeostasis, we propose that organismal function is accomplished by the integration of regulatory mechanisms at multiple hierarchical scales, and that the disruption of this ensemble causes the phenotypic and functional manifestations of aging. We present key examples at scales ranging from sub-organismal biology to clinical geriatrics, outlining how this approach can potentially enrich our understanding of aging.",

author = "Cohen, {Alan A.} and Luigi Ferrucci and Tam{\`a}s F{\"u}l{\"o}p and Dominique Gravel and Nan Hao and Andres Kriete and Levine, {Morgan E.} and Lipsitz, {Lewis A.} and {Olde Rikkert}, {Marcel G.M.} and Andrew Rutenberg and Nicholas Stroustrup and Ravi Varadhan",

note = "Funding Information: We thank the International Conference on Complex Systems (2020) for sponsoring a workshop that led to this publication, under the guidance of E. Naumova. We thank J. Campisi and M. Kaeberlein for comments on the manuscript, and V. Legault for help creating figures. A.A.C. is a senior research scholar supported by the Fonds de recherche du Qu{\'e}bec–Sant{\'e}. This work was supported by the National Science and Engineering Research Council Grant nos. RGPIN-2018-06096 to A.A.C. and RGPIN-2019-05888 to A.R., Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant no. 153011 to A.A.C., National Institutes of Health R01AG056440 to N.H., R01GM111458 to N.H. and R01AG068112 to N.H. M.G.M.O.R. is supported by research grants on complexity science for this work from the Dutch Research Council NWO (grants Compl21COV.001 and 645.003.002) and the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw grant no 09120012010063). A.K. is supported by the Cell2Society Aging Research Network—A Drexel Research Excellence Initiative. Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2022, Springer Nature America, Inc.",

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(Video) On the Nature of Causality in Complex Systems, George F.R. Ellis

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AU - Levine, Morgan E.

AU - Lipsitz, Lewis A.

AU - Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M.

AU - Rutenberg, Andrew

AU - Stroustrup, Nicholas

AU - Varadhan, Ravi

(Video) ARDD 2022 Longevity Medicine Workshop Panel 1: Translating Geroscience into the Clinic

N1 - Funding Information:We thank the International Conference on Complex Systems (2020) for sponsoring a workshop that led to this publication, under the guidance of E. Naumova. We thank J. Campisi and M. Kaeberlein for comments on the manuscript, and V. Legault for help creating figures. A.A.C. is a senior research scholar supported by the Fonds de recherche du Québec–Santé. This work was supported by the National Science and Engineering Research Council Grant nos. RGPIN-2018-06096 to A.A.C. and RGPIN-2019-05888 to A.R., Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant no. 153011 to A.A.C., National Institutes of Health R01AG056440 to N.H., R01GM111458 to N.H. and R01AG068112 to N.H. M.G.M.O.R. is supported by research grants on complexity science for this work from the Dutch Research Council NWO (grants Compl21COV.001 and 645.003.002) and the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw grant no 09120012010063). A.K. is supported by the Cell2Society Aging Research Network—A Drexel Research Excellence Initiative. Publisher Copyright:© 2022, Springer Nature America, Inc.

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N2 - Having made substantial progress understanding molecules, cells, genes and pathways, aging biology research is now moving toward integration of these parts, attempting to understand how their joint dynamics may contribute to aging. Such a shift of perspective requires the adoption of a formal complex systems framework, a transition being facilitated by large-scale data collection and new analytical tools. Here, we provide a theoretical framework to orient researchers around key concepts for this transition, notably emergence, interaction networks and resilience. Drawing on evolutionary theory, network theory and principles of homeostasis, we propose that organismal function is accomplished by the integration of regulatory mechanisms at multiple hierarchical scales, and that the disruption of this ensemble causes the phenotypic and functional manifestations of aging. We present key examples at scales ranging from sub-organismal biology to clinical geriatrics, outlining how this approach can potentially enrich our understanding of aging.

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(Video) Geroscience: The Biology of Aging @ Oxford (Lord Florey Lecture by Sebastian A. Brunemeier)

FAQs

What are the biological feature of aging? ›

Though the data analyses are complex, some initial observations are: (1) aging results in lower levels of activity of metabolic and biosynthetic genes; (2) aging is accompanied by patterns of gene expression that are indicative of stress responses, including inflammatory and oxidative stress; (3) many, but not all, age ...

What is meant by Ageing process? ›

Aging is a gradual, continuous process of natural change that begins in early adulthood. During early middle age, many bodily functions begin to gradually decline. People do not become old or elderly at any specific age. Traditionally, age 65 has been designated as the beginning of old age.

What are the 3 biological theories of aging? ›

Wear and tear theory asserts that cells and tissues simply wear out. Rate of living theory is the idea that the faster an organism uses oxygen, the shorter it lives. Cross-linking theory states that cross-linked proteins accumulate and slow down the body's processes. 1

What is the process of biological aging called? ›

Senescence (/sɪˈnɛsəns/) or biological aging is the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics in living organisms. The word senescence can refer to either cellular senescence or to senescence of the whole organism.

What are the 4 factors of aging? ›

They found people tend to fall into one of four biological aging pathways, or ageotypes: immune, kidney, liver or metabolic. Snyder said that metabolic agers, for example, may be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes as they grow older.

What are the 4 aging types? ›

Just because an individual falls into one or more of the four ageotypes — metabolic, immune, hepatic and nephrotic — doesn't mean that they're not also aging along the other biological pathways, Snyder said.

What are the 5 stages of aging? ›

The Following Are the Five Stages of Aging That Most Older Adults Experience
  1. Self-sufficiency. The first stage in the aging process is self-sufficiency. ...
  2. Interdependence. Eventually, your aging loved one will require some support and assistance. ...
  3. Dependence. ...
  4. Crisis Management. ...
  5. End of Life.
15 Jun 2021

What are the 5 main biological theories of aging? ›

Stochastic theories include wear and tear, error catastrophe, free radical theory, DNA damage hypothesis, loss of adaptive cellular mechanism, and the mitochondrial theory.

What is aging in biology? ›

Aging is the time-related deterioration of the physiological functions necessary for survival and reproduction. The phenotypic changes of senescence (which affect all members of the species) are not to be confused with diseases of senescence, such as cancer and heart disease (which affect individuals).

Why do we age biological theories of aging? ›

Your cells are programmed to divide, multiply, and perform basic biological functions. But the more cells divide, the older they get. In turn, cells eventually lose their ability to function properly. Cellular damage also increases as cells get older.

› about › budget › biology-aging... ›

Selected future research directions are described as well, including continuing efforts to find biologic interventions to promote healthy aging, to understand t...
aging, progressive physiological changes in an organism that lead to senescence, or a decline of biological functions and of the organism's ability to adapt...
In the past, maximum life span (the maximum biological limit of life in an ideal environment) was not thought to be subject to change with the process of aging ...

What is an example of biological age? ›

For example, you may have a calendar age, or chronological age, of 65, but because of a healthy and active lifestyle—for example, by avoiding longevity threats like tobacco and obesity—your body is physiologically more similar to someone with a chronological age of 55. Your biological age would, therefore, be 55.

What are the 4 factors of aging? ›

They found people tend to fall into one of four biological aging pathways, or ageotypes: immune, kidney, liver or metabolic. Snyder said that metabolic agers, for example, may be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes as they grow older.

Why is biological aging important? ›

Investigating biological age can help identify individuals at higher risk of disease and death, before clinical manifestation of disease.

What are the 5 stages of aging? ›

The Following Are the Five Stages of Aging That Most Older Adults Experience
  1. Self-sufficiency. The first stage in the aging process is self-sufficiency. ...
  2. Interdependence. Eventually, your aging loved one will require some support and assistance. ...
  3. Dependence. ...
  4. Crisis Management. ...
  5. End of Life.
15 Jun 2021

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